The goal of our research is to understand the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Our research is primarily focused on the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS), which is very common (1/1000 in the US population). We study human tissues (blood, DNA, RNA, spinal fluid) and perform cutting-edge imaging of the human nervous system. We sometimes employ an animal model for MS known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We are currently performing longitudinal imaging studies to help devise methods to differentiate the various types of pathologies in the human disease, such as demyelination, inflammation with cells and or edema due to blood-brain barrier breakdown, and axon damage and loss. We are funded to devise better methods to measure progression of MS over time, which might be used in clinical trials. We also study the effects of diet and calorie restriction upon neuro-inflammation, having shown previously that calorie restriction ameliorates EAE, the prime animal model for MS, at least partly through the upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin.
- Lyons JA, San M, Happ MP, and Cross AH: B-cells are critical to induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by protein but not by a short encephalitogenic peptide.Eur. J. Immunol.1999; 29: 3432-3439.
- Cross AH, Stark JL, Ramsbottom MJ, Lauber J, Lyons JA: Rituximab reduces B cells and T cells in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients. J. Neuroimmunol. 2006; 180:63-70. PMCID: PMC1769354
- Stark J, Cross AH: Differential Expression of Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling-1 and -3 and Related Cytokines in Central Nervous System During Remitting versus Non-remitting Forms of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int Immunol 2006; 18:347-353.
- Cross AH, Ramsbottom MJ, Lyons JA: NOS2 regulates cytokine production and VLA-4 expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis J Neuroimmunol 2006; 173:79-86.
- Naismith RT, Trinkaus K, Cross AH: Phenotype and prognosis in African-Americans with multiple sclerosis: a retrospective chart review. Multiple Sclerosis 2006; 12: 775-781.
- Rinker JR II, Trinkaus K, Cross AH: Elevated CSF free kappa light chains correlate with disability prognosis in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2006; 67:1288-1290.
- Lyons JA, Ramsbottom MJ, Mikesell RJ, Cross AH: B cells limit epitope spreading and reduce severity of EAE induced with PLP peptide in BALB/c mice. J Autoimmunity 2008; 31: 149-155. PMCID: PMC2580779
- Piccio LM, Stark JL, Cross AH: Chronic Calorie Restriction Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. J Leuk Biol 2008; 84:940-948. PMCID: PMC2638732
- Xu J, Sun S-W, Naismith RT, Snyder AZ, Cross AH, Song SK: Assessing Optic Nerve Pathology with Diffusion MRI: from Mouse to Human. NMR Biomed 2008; 21: 928-40. PMCID: PMC2603138
- Naismith RT, Tutlam N, Xu J, Klawiter EC, Shepherd, JB, Song, SK, Cross AH. Optical Coherence Tomography is Less Sensitive than Visual Evoked Potentials in Optic Neuritis Neurology 2009; 73: 46-52. PMCID: PMC2707110
- Piccio LM, Buonsanti C, Schmidt RE, Rinker J, Panina-Bordignon P, Cella M, Colonna M, Cross AH: Identification of a novel soluble TREM-2 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid in association with central nervous system inflammation. Brain 2008; 131: 3081-3091 PMCID: PMC2577803
- Budde MD, Xie M, Cross AH, Song SK: Axial diffusivity is the primary correlate of axonal injury in the EAE spinal cord: A quantitative pixelwise correlation analysis. J Neuroscience 2009; 29: 2805-2813. PMCID: PMC2673458
- Naismith RT, Tutlam NT, Xu J, Klawiter EC, Shepherd JB, Trinkaus K, Song SK, Cross AH. Optical coherence tomography differs in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2009; 72: 1077-1082 PMCID: PMC2677471
- Naismith RT, Piccio L, Lyons JA, Lauber J, Tutlam NT, Parks BJ, Trinkaus K, Song SK, Cross AH: Rituximab add-on therapy for breakthrough relapsing multiple sclerosis: a 52-week phase II trial. Neurology 2010; 74: 1860-1867 PMCID: PMC2882224
- Piccio L, Naismith RT, Trinkaus K, Klein RS, Parks BJ, Lyons JA, Cross AH. Changes in B and T lymphocytes and chemokines with rituximab treatment in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2010; 67: 707-714. PMCID: PMC2918395
- Klawiter EC, Piccio L, Lyons JA, Mikesell R, O’Connor KC, Cross AH. Elevated intrathecal myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2010; 67: 1102-1108. PMCID: PMC3051403
- Naismith RT, Xu J, Tutlam N, Scully PT, Trinkaus K, Snyder AZ, Song SS, Cross AH. Increased Diffusivity in Acute Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Predicts Risk of Black Holes. Neurology 2010; 74:1694-701. PMCID2882210
- Wang Y, Wang Q, Haldar JP, Yeh FC, Xie M, Sun P, Trinkaus K, Klein RS, Cross AH, Song S-K. Quantification of increased cellularity during inflammatory demyelination. Brain 2011; 134: 3587-9 PMCID: PMC3235568
- Klawiter EC, Schmidt RE, Trinkaus K, Liang HF, Budde MD, Naismith RT, Song SK, Cross AH, Benzinger TL. Radial diffusivity predicts demyelination in ex-vivo multiple sclerosis spinal cords. NeuroImage 2011; 55:1454-1460. PMCID: PMC3062747
- Naismith RT, Xu J, Tutlam NT, Lancia S, Trinkaus K, Song SK, Cross AH. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Acute Optic Neuropathies. Predictor of Clinical Outcomes. Arch Neurol 2012; 69: 65-71. PMCID:PMC3489058
- Klawiter EC, Xu J, Naismith RT, Benzinger TLS, Shimony JS, Lancia S, Snyder AZ, Trinkaus K, Song SK, Cross AH. Increased radial diffusivity in spinal cord lesions in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2012;18: 1259-68. PMCID: PMC3360125.
- Alvarez E, Piccio L, Mikesell RJ, Klawiter EC, Parks BJ, Naismith RT, Cross AH. CXCL13 is a Biomarker of Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, and Other Neurological Conditions. Mult Scler. 2013;19:1204-8. PMCID: PMC3959125
- Naismith RT, Xu J, Klawiter EC, Lancia S, Tutlam NT, Wagner JM, Qian P, Trinkaus K, Song SK, Cross AH. Spinal cord tract diffusion tensor imaging reveals disability substrate in demyelinating disease. Neurology. 2013; 80:2201-9. PMCID:PMC3721096
- Piccio L, Cantoni C, Ramsbottom M, Mikesell B, Cremasco V, Haynes W, Dong LQ, Chan L, Galimberti D, Cross AH. Lack of adiponectin leads to increased lymphocyte activation and worse severity of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Eur J Immunol 2013; 43: 2089-2100. PMCID:PMC3901539
- Luo J, Yablonskiy DA, Lancia S, Hildebolt C, Cross AH. Gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging correlates with clinical measures and allows visualization of veins within multiple sclerosis lesions. Mult Scler J 2013; 20: 349-355. PMID: 23836876
- Wang Y, Sun P, Wang Q, Trinkaus K, Naismith RT, Cross AH, Song SK. Differentiation and quantification of inflammation, demyelination, and axon injury/loss in MS. Brain.2015;138(Pt 5):1223-38. PMCID pending
- Longbrake EE, Wu GF, Parks BJ, Naismith RT, Cross AH. Dimethyl fumarate-associated lymphopenia: Risk factors and clinical significance. Mult Scler J: Exp Transl Clin. (in press)
- Wen J, Yablonskiy D, Luo J, Lancia S, Hildebolt C, Cross AH. Detection and quantification of regional cortical gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis utilizing gradient echo MRI NeuroImage: Clinical (in press)
- Patel K, Luo J, Alvarez E, Piccio L, Schmidt RE, Yablonskiy DA, Cross AH. Detection of Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis: An Efficient New Imaging Approach. Mult Scler J: Exp Transl Clin (in press)
- Alvarez EE, Piccio L, Mikesell RJ, Trinkaus K, Parks BJ, Naismith RT, Cross AH. Predicting optimal response to B cell depletion with rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis using CXCL13 index, MRI and clinical measures. Mult Scler J: Exp, Transl Clin (in press)