Rafael Galindo, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor of Neurology




  • 1996 University of Guadalajara Bachelor Travel Scholarship, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
  • 2002 Honors, Ph.D. qualifying examination, UNM Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of New Mexico, USA
  • 2002 Minority Fellowship Award, NIH-NIAAA (AA 12684-S1), National Institutes of Health, USA
  • 2003 First place research project, University of New Mexico Graduate Program, University of New Mexico, USA
  • 2003 Pass with distinction, Ph.D. comprehensive examination, University of New Mexico, USA
  • 2003 Awarded the American Academy of Neurology Foundation Aventis Minority Scholarship, American Academy of Neurology, USA
  • 2005 Nominee by UNM School of Medicine, Herbert W. Nickens Medical Student Scholarship, Association of American Medical Colleges, USA
  • 2007 Medical Student Prize for Excellence in Neurology, American Academy of Neurology, USA
  • 2009 Chief Resident Award, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
  • 2011 Chief Resident for the Department of Pediatric & Developmental Neurology, Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
  • 2011 Steven M. Rothman Award for Outstanding Teaching by a Pediatric Neurology Resident, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Washington University in St. Louis, USA
  • 2011 Triple Crown Winner for “exemplifying the superior patient experience attributes of safe, effective care and exceptional service”, Children’s Direct, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, USA
  • 2012 Recipient of Institutional T32 Training grant, Washington University, St. Louis, USA. Project: “The neuroprotective actions of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases and Sterile α and TIR motif-containing protein in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia”.
  • 2012 Travel Award, American Academy of Neurology Scientific Meeting, New Orleans, LA
  • 2013 Mentored Clinical Scientist Research Career Development Award (Parent K08), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (1K08NS083736-01 Grant # 11246447).


  • Galindo R,Valenzuela CF. (2006). Immature hippocampal neuronal networks do not develop tolerance to the excitatory actions of ethanol. Alcohol, 40(2):111-118. PMID: 17307647
  • Roberto M, Treistman SN, Pietrzykowski AZ, Weiner J, Galindo R, Mameli M, Valenzuela F, Zhu PJ, Lovinger D, Zhang TA, Hendricson AH, Morrisett R, Siggins GR. (2006). Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(2):222-32. PMID: 16441271
  • Galindo R. Ethanol excites synchronized neuronal network activity in the immature hippocampus via an increase in GABA release: implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (2005). ISBN 9780542390364
  • Bender RA, Galindo R, Mameli M, Gonzalez-Vega R, Valenzuela CF, Baram TZ.(2005) Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22(10):2669-74. PMID: 16307610
  • Galindo R, Zamudio PA, Valenzuela CF. (2005). Alcohol is a potent stimulant of immature neuronal networks: implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurochemistry. 94(6):1500-11. PMID: 16000153
  • Galindo R,Frausto S, Wolff C, Caldwell KK, Perrone-Bizzozero NI, Savage DD. (2004). Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces mGluR5 receptor number and function in the dentate gyrus of adult offspring. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(10):1587-97. PMID: 15597093
  • Allan AM, Galindo R, Chynoweth J, Engel SR, Savage DD. (2001). Conditioned place preference for cocaine is attenuated in mice over-expressing the 5-HT (3) receptor. Psychopharmacology.158(1):18-27. PMID: 11685380
  • Savage DD, Galindo R, Queen SA, Paxton LL, Allan AM. (2001). Characterization of electrically evoked [3H]-D-aspartate release from hippocampal slices. Neurochemistry International, 38(3):255-67. PMID: 11099785

My clinical practice primarily involves caring for infants and children affected with neurological disorders of congenital or perinatal origin. The focus of my neuroscientific research involves understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate neuronal survival and death in the injured neonatal brain. Specifically, I am examining the role and associated cellular mechanisms of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferases (NMNATs) and sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) in maintaining neuronal survival of injured developing neurons. Through the years, I have developed a great interest in the area of developmental neuropathology. Research in newborn neurology offers great opportunities for uncovering new neurobiological strategies and knowledge that can be reciprocally translated between bench and bedside. In addition, the consequences that develop from neonatal brain injury are vast and form a relatively large part of the pediatric patient population. Understanding the role of molecules like NMNATs and SARM on the survival of injured immature neurons may offer new potential targets for the effective treatment and prevention of the immediate and long-term neurological consequences that affect neonates exposed to birth asphyxia.