Rafael Galindo, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor of Neurology

Phone314-454-6120

Emailgalindor@wustl.edu

Research Interests

The focus of my neuroscientific research involves exploring novel neuroprotective strategies and understanding neurobiological mechanisms that regulate neuronal survival and death in the injured neonatal brain. Specifically, I am examining the role and associated cellular mechanisms of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferases (NMNATs), sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin in maintaining neuronal survival of injured developing neurons. Research in newborn neurology offers great opportunities for uncovering new neurobiological strategies and knowledge that can be reciprocally translated between bench and bedside. In addition, the consequences that develop from neonatal brain injury are vast and form a relatively large part of the pediatric patient population. Understanding the role of molecules like NMNATs, SARM and hCG on the survival of injured immature neurons may offer new potential agents and/or cellular targets for the effective treatment and prevention of the immediate and long-term neurological consequences that affect neonates exposed to birth asphyxia.

In addition to the study of the above molecules, another part of my research effort is aimed at developing new function-based animal models for the systematic evaluation of the neurological comorbidities associated with neonatal cerebral injury. To this end, we are developing new technologies and methods for evaluating cortical network connectivity and seizures during and/or following neonatal HI. I am currently funded through the Washington University Hope Center on a pilot project for the development a new method for in vivo examination of neonatal seizures through the different stages of neuronal degeneration following neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. The results thus far are encouraging and will allows to better understand and translate the evolution of epileptogenesis after birth-related injury. This technique will also allow us to test hypotheses related to the treatment and ontogenesis of infant-related epileptic disorders.

Recognition

2016    Hope Center Pilot Grant award “Mechanisms of neonatal seizures in a mouse model of term equivalent cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.

2016    Top 10% doctors of all medical school faculty, Faculty Practice Plan, Washington University in St. Louis

2015    Top 10% doctors of all medical school faculty, Faculty Practice Plan, Washington University in St. Louis

2013    Mentored Clinical Scientist Research Career Development Award (Parent K08), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke                                (1K08NS083736-01 Grant # 11246447).

2012    Recipient of Institutional T32 Training grant, Washington University, St. Louis, USA

2012    Travel Award, American Academy of Neurology Scientific Meeting, New Orleans, LA

2011    Triple Crown Winner for “exemplifying the superior patient experience attributes of safe, effective care and exceptional service”, Children’s Direct, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, USA

2011    Steven M. Rothman Award for Outstanding Teaching by a Pediatric Neurology Resident, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Washington University in St.              Louis, USA

2011    Chief Resident for the Department of Pediatric & Developmental Neurology, Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, USA

2009    Chief Resident Award, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Washington University in St. Louis, USA

2007    Medical Student Prize for Excellence in Neurology, American Academy of Neurology, USA

2005    Nominee by UNM School of Medicine, Herbert W. Nickens Medical Student Scholarship, Association of American Medical Colleges, USA

2003    Pass with distinction, Ph.D. comprehensive examination, University of New Mexico, USA

2003    First place research project, University of New Mexico Graduate Program, University of New Mexico, USA

2003    Awarded the American Academy of Neurology Foundation Aventis Minority Scholarship, American Academy of Neurology, USA

2002    Honors, Ph.D. qualifying examination, UNM Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of New Mexico, USA

2002    Minority Fellowship Award, NIH-NIAAA (AA 12684-S1), National Institutes of Health, USA

1996    University of Guadalajara Bachelor Travel Scholarship, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico

Education

  • B.S.: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (1996)
  • Ph.D. Biomedical sciences with specialty in Neurosciences: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (2005)
  • M.D.: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (2007)
  • Intern and junior resident in Pediatrics: St. Louis Children’s Hospital/Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (2007-2009)
  • Resident in Neurology: Barnes Jewish Hospital/Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (2009-2010)
  • Pediatric Neurology Fellow: St. Louis Children’s Hospital/Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (2010-2012)
  • Post-doctoral research Fellow in Neurology: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (2012-2013)

Publications

  1. Allan AM, Galindo R, Chynoweth J, Engel SR, Savage DD. Conditioned place preference for cocaine is attenuated in mice over-expressing the 5-HT(3) receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;158(1):18-27.
  2. Bender RA, Galindo R, Mameli M, Gonzalez-Vega R, Valenzuela CF, Baram TZ. Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function. The European journal of neuroscience. 2005;22(10):2669-2674.
  3. Dail WG, Barba V, Leyba L, Galindo R. Neural and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in rat penile erectile tissue. Cell Tissue Res. 1995;282(1):109-116.
  4. Dail WG, Galindo R, Harji F, Gonzales J. Cytochrome oxidase staining in the major pelvic ganglion of the male rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1997;65(1):57-64.
  5. Dail WG, Galindo R, Leyba L, Barba V. Denervation-induced changes in perineuronal plexuses in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat: immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tyrosine hydroxylase and histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase. Cell Tissue Res. 1997;287(2):315-324.
  6. Dail WG, Harji F, Gonzales J, Galindo R. Multiple vasodilator pathways from the pelvic plexus to the penis of the rat. Int J Impot Res. 1999;11(5):277-285.
  7. Galindo R, Banks Greenberg M, Araki T, et al. NMNAT3 is protective against the effects of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology 2017; 4(10): 722-738..
  8. Galindo R, Barba V, Dail WG. The sensory branch of the pudendal nerve is the major route for adrenergic innervation of the penis in the rat. Anat Rec. 1997;247(4):479-485.
  9. Galindo R, Frausto S, Wolff C, Caldwell KK, Perrone-Bizzozero NI, Savage DD. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces mGluR5 receptor number and function in the dentate gyrus of adult offspring. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28(10):1587-1597.
  10. Galindo R, Valenzuela CF. Immature hippocampal neuronal networks do not develop tolerance to the excitatory actions of ethanol. Alcohol. 2006;40(2):111-118.
  11. Galindo R, Zamudio PA, Valenzuela CF. Alcohol is a potent stimulant of immature neuronal networks: implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of neurochemistry. 2005;94(6):1500-1511.
  12. Harji F, Gonzales J, Galindo R, Dail WG. Preganglionic fibers in the rat hypogastric nerve project bilaterally to pelvic ganglia. Anat Rec. 1998;252(2):229-234.
  13. Movsas TZ., Weiner R., Greenberg MB., Holtzman DM and Galindo R. Pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin protects the neonatal brain against the effects of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Accepted for publication – Frontiers in Pediatrics, 2017
  14. Roberto M, Treistman SN, Pietrzykowski AZ, et al. Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(2):222-232.
  15. Savage DD, Galindo R, Queen SA, Paxton LL, Allan AM. Characterization of electrically evoked [3H]-D-aspartate release from hippocampal slices. Neurochemistry international. 2001;38(3):255-267.
  16. Vesoulis ZA, Galindo R, Ornstein BW, White AJ. Neuro-Behcets in a Child. Child Neurol Open. 2014;1(1):2329048X14550505.

 

Manuscripts currently in preparation:

Galindo R., Greenberg MB, Araki T, Milbrandt J, and Holtzman DM. SARM1 depletion decreases neonatal cerebral neurodegeneration following hypoxia-ischemia via a caspase and calpain-independent mechanism.

Galindo R., Kastelein B., Rensing N., and Wong M. “Developmental encephalography in the immature mouse Brain”.

Galindo R., Kastelein B., Rensing N., and Wong M.  “Electrographic neurodevelopmental characterization of mouse neonatal encephalopathy                      after hypoxia-ischemia and hypoxic pre-conditioning”.

 Abstracts and Presentations:

Movsas, TZ., Weiner, R., Holtzman, DM., and Galindo R. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2017), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Human chorionic gonadotropin protects the neonatal brain against hypoxic-ischemic neurodegeneration and inhibits glutamate-dependent excitotoxic neuronal cell death.

Moy, B., Rensing, N., Wong, M., and Galindo R. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2017), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. A new experimental EEG-based mouse model for the longitudinal characterization of neonatal seizures and neonatal encephalopathy following birth-simulated cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.

Frank, T., Greenberg, M., Holtzman, DM., and Galindo R. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2017), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Depletion of Sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif containing protein 1 (SARM1) protects the immature brain against the neurodegenerative effects of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in a caspase-independent manner.

 Galindo, R., Movsas, TZ., Weiner, R., and Holtzman, DM. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting (2016), San Diego, CA. Human chorionic gonadotropin protects the neonatal brain against hypoxic-ischemic neurodegeneration and inhibits glutamate-dependent excitotoxic neuronal cell death

 Galindo, R., Greenberg MB, Araki T, Sasaki Y, Mehta N, Milbrandt J, and Holtzman DM. American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (2016). Baltimore, MD. NMNAT3 protects neurons from neuronal degeneration in a mouse model of perinatal asphyxia.

Galindo, R., Greenberg, MB., Araki, T., and Holtzman, DM. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting (2015), Chicago, IL., Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase 3 protects the mouse neonatal
hippocampus from the effects of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

Galindo, R., Weiner, R., and Holtzman, DM. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2015), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone as a novel neuroprotectant against the effects of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

 Galindo, R., Greenberg, MB, and Holtzman, DM. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2015), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Neuroprotective role of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 in a mouse model of neonatal cerebral ischemia.

 Galindo, R., Greenberg, MB, and Holtzman, DM. Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2015), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif containing protein 1 (SARM1) is involved in the protection of immature neurons from neonatal cerebral ischemia.

 Galindo, R., Greenberg, MB., and Holtzman, DM. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting (2014), Washington, DC. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases in a mouse model of term-equivalent birth asphyxia.

 Galindo, R., and Holtzman, DM. American Academy of Neurology, Career Development Symposium (2013). New Orleans, LA. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferases in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

Galindo, R., and Holtzman, DM., Hope center for neurological disorders annual scientific meeting (2013), Washington University in St. Louis, MO. The role of SARM1 and NMNAT proteins in neonatal brain hypoxia-ischemia

 Galindo, R., and Valenzuela, C. F., Society for Neuroscience, 34th Meeting (2004), San Diego, California, Ethanol Increases Immature Network Excitability in the Neonatal Rat Hippocampus Via an Increase in the Probability of GABA and Glutamate Release.

Galindo, R., and Valenzuela, C. F., 27th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (2004), Vancouver, Canada, Ethanol Excites Immature Hippocampal Networks Via an Increase in GABA and Glutamate Release.

Galindo, R., and Valenzuela, C. F., Society for Neuroscience 33rd Annual Meeting (2003), New Orleans, Louisiana. Ethanol Disrupts the Activity of Immature Hippocampal Networks in Neonatal Rats.

Savage, D. D., Wolff, C., Galindo, R., Frausto, S. Society for Neuroscience 33rd Annual Meeting (2003), New Orleans, Louisiana. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Reduces mGluR5 receptor function in Dentate Gyrus of Adult Offspring.

Galindo, R., and Valenzuela, C. F., Annual Graduate Student Research Day and Annual Neuroscience Day (2003), University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  Ethanol Affects the Network Activity of Developing Hippocampal Neurons.

Galindo, R., Keidan, G. Escobar, I., Ortiz, G. R., and Savage, D. D., 23rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (2000), Denver, Colorado. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Reduces mGluR5 Receptor Number and Function in Dentate gyrus of Adult Offspring.

Galindo, R., 12th Annual Neuroscience Day (1998), University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Expression and Activation of the Transcription Factor JUN in the Major Pelvic Ganglion of the Male Rat Following Axotomy.

Gonzales, J, Galindo, R., Harji, F., Dail, W G., Society for Neuroscience 27th Annual Meeting (1997), New Orleans, Lousiana, Synaptophysin Immunoreactive Plexuses in Acutely and Chronically Denervated Pelvic Ganglia.

Barba, v., Galindo, R., Partridge, L. D., Dail, W G., Society for Neuroscience 26th Annual Meeting (1996), Washington, D. C. Peripheral Pathways of the Sympathetic Innervation of the Penis.

Galindo, R., Partridge, L. D., Dail, W G., 10th Annual Neuroscience Day (1996), University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Peripheral Pathways of the Sympathetic Innervation of the Penis.

Galindo, R., Dail, W G., Leyba, L., Barba, v., 8th Annual Neuroscience Day (1995), University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, The Role of Castration on NADPH Diaphorase Staining Nerves.

Galindo, R., Dail, W G., Leyba, L., Barba, v., 8th Annual Neuroscience Day (1995), Unversity of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Immunoractivity of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide in Nerve Plexuses in an Autonomic Ganglion Following Chronic Decentralization.

Dail, W G., Galindo, R., Harji, F, Leyba L., Barba, V, Society for Neuroscience 25th Annual Meeting (1995), San Diego California, Cytochrome Oxidase Staining in the Rat Major Pelvic Ganglion (MPG).

Galindo, R., Dail, W G” Leyba, L., Barba, V, Society for Neuroscience, 24th Annual meeting (1994), Miami Beach Florida, Immunoreactivity for Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide in Nerve Plexuses in and Autonomic Ganglion Following Chronic Decentralization.

Dail, W G., Barba, V, Leyba, L., Galindo, R., Reyes, E., Society for Neuroscience 24th Annual Meeting (1994), Miami Beach, Florida, The Effect of Castration on NADPH Diaphorase Staining in Penile Nerves.

My clinical practice primarily involves caring for infants and children affected with neurological disorders of congenital or perinatal origin. The focus of my neuroscientific research involves understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate neuronal survival and death in the injured neonatal brain. Specifically, I am examining the role and associated cellular mechanisms of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferases (NMNATs) and sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) in maintaining neuronal survival of injured developing neurons. Through the years, I have developed a great interest in the area of developmental neuropathology. Research in newborn neurology offers great opportunities for uncovering new neurobiological strategies and knowledge that can be reciprocally translated between bench and bedside. In addition, the consequences that develop from neonatal brain injury are vast and form a relatively large part of the pediatric patient population. Understanding the role of molecules like NMNATs and SARM on the survival of injured immature neurons may offer new potential targets for the effective treatment and prevention of the immediate and long-term neurological consequences that affect neonates exposed to birth asphyxia.